Common technical processing overview
Continuous casting square billets —— Heating CZPT —- High pressure water CZPT —- Roughing mills group —– # 1 Flying Shears —- Intermediate mills group —– #2 Flying shears —– Finishing mills group —#3 multi-lengths flying shears —- Step rack cooling bed—— Fixed length cold shears——- The finished product automatic counting and bundling — Storage.
The function of pre-finishing mill
In the process of high-speed wire-rod rolling, pre-finishing mill can improve the precision of the working piece to guarantee the product quality and avoid possible operation failure during the finishing mill section.The structure of framework
Its structure is 2 horizontal and 2 vertical (horizontal-vertical-horizontal-vertical; H-V-H-V) cantilever type, it is very compact, and the weight adjustment is more precise and reliable, and so to avoid possible twist rolling.
Pre-finishing mill is composed by 2 horizontal mills, 3 vertical loops, 2 vertical mills, safety cover and so on.Equipment structure
The role of transmission box is to transmit the moment outputted by reduction gear and motor to roll shafts. Horizontal box has a pair of cylindrical bevel gears; vertical box has a pair of additional spiral bevel gear beside a pair of cylindrical bevel gear. The spiral bevel gear speed ratio of the 2 vertical transmission boxes is different.
Each roller box has 1 upper roll shaft and 1 lower roll shaft; they are not meshed, and driven by a pair of cylindrical bevel gears in the transmission box.
A cantilever cylindrical roll shaft is fixed to each roll shaft; the roll shaft is fixed in the eccentric locking collar and sustained by the front and rear film bearing. Driven by the left and right feed screw and nut of the shaft gap adjustment device, the eccentric locking collar makes the upper and lower roll shaft open and shut symmetrically and evenly relate to the milling centre line, in so to achieve roll shaft gap adjustment. The roll shafts are made of tungsten carbide.
The roller box is installed with flange in plug-in method,
and convenient to assembly and disassembly, the roller box and transmission box are individual unites, during the installation, assemble the roller box and transmission box at the first stage and then fix the roller box inside the transmission box with screw bolt, the roller box is positioned by 2 locating pins to obtain accurate position. In this way, the installation can be done easily and with a shorter time, meanwhile, the pipework on the panel is reduced and make it easier for failure handling. 1, The roller gap is adjusted by using the eccentric locking collar, by adjusting the lead screw and nut , the eccentric locking collar will spin and then drive the roller shaft to move symmetrically, in so to achieve the adjustment of roller shaft gap. The best advantage of this adjustment method is that the central line will be kept unchanged.
2, By using the thrust bearing that fixed at the end of the roller shaft, we can effectively prevent the axial shift of the roller shaft, in so to ensure size accuracy of the product.
3, the size and structure of the roller box for horizontal framework and vertical framework are the same, all the parts are interchangeable.
4, the power transmission and speed control are conducted by a pair of spiral bevel gears in the transmission box, the reducer is omitted from the transmission system of the vertical rolling mill, so that the whole equipment is lighter and smaller.
5. As the horizontal framework is completely symmetrical, it can be rotated 180, so it can be shared by 2 production lines that located at its right and left side.
Xihu (West Lake) Dis. device
The entrance of roller box has installed scroll CZPT and slip guide, the exit of roller box just has slip guide, slip CZPT is lubricated by special lubrication device.
Main technical features
First mill input specification: F28~F31mm
Fourth mill output specification: F16~F20mm
The kinds of rolling steel: Carbon steel, high carbon steel, low alloy steel, welding steel, heading steel.
The temperature of rolling: 900~1050ºC
Transmission method: Direct current (DC) motor alone drives
The transmission parameter table of pre-finishing mill
|Ratio of speed
|Rotary speed of roll
|Maximum outside diameter mm
|Minimum outside diameter
Maximum rolling strength: ~240kN
Maximum rolling moment: ~6.2kN·m
Centre distance of roll shaft: F255mm~F291mm
Adjustment of roller gap: ±18 mm
Cooling water of roll shaft: consumption: 4×20 t/h
water pressure 0.6MPa
temperature of water coming: <30ºC
Roller box and reduction equipment adopt thin oil to lubricate, which is offered by workshop.
Pressure of oil: pressure in lubrication point 0.15~0.25MPa
Total consumption: 400 l/min
Oiliness: Mobil 533
Refined filter: 25μ
Screw Sizes and Their Uses
Screws have different sizes and features. This article will discuss screw sizes and their uses. There are 2 main types: right-handed and left-handed screw shafts. Each screw features a point that drills into the object. Flat tipped screws, on the other hand, need a pre-drilled hole. These screw sizes are determined by the major and minor diameters. To determine which size of screw you need, measure the diameter of the hole and the screw bolt’s thread depth.
The major diameter of a screw shaft
The major diameter of a screw shaft is the distance from the outer edge of the thread on 1 side to the tip of the other. The minor diameter is the inner smooth part of the screw shaft. The major diameter of a screw is typically between 2 and 16 inches. A screw with a pointy tip has a smaller major diameter than 1 without. In addition, a screw with a larger major diameter will have a wider head and drive.
The thread of a screw is usually characterized by its pitch and angle of engagement. The pitch is the angle formed by the helix of a thread, while the crest forms the surface of the thread corresponding to the major diameter of the screw. The pitch angle is the angle between the gear axis and the pitch surface. Screws without self-locking threads have multiple starts, or helical threads.
The pitch is a crucial component of a screw’s threading system. Pitch is the distance from a given thread point to the corresponding point of the next thread on the same shaft. The pitch line is 1 element of pitch diameter. The pitch line, or lead, is a crucial dimension for the thread of a screw, as it controls the amount of thread that will advance during a single turn.
The pitch diameter of a screw shaft
When choosing the appropriate screw, it is important to know its pitch diameter and pitch line. The pitch line designates the distance between adjacent thread sides. The pitch diameter is also known as the mean area of the screw shaft. Both of these dimensions are important when choosing the correct screw. A screw with a pitch of 1/8 will have a mechanical advantage of 6.3. For more information, consult an application engineer at Roton.
The pitch diameter of a screw shaft is measured as the distance between the crest and the root of the thread. Threads that are too long or too short will not fit together in an assembly. To measure pitch, use a measuring tool with a metric scale. If the pitch is too small, it will cause the screw to loosen or get stuck. Increasing the pitch will prevent this problem. As a result, screw diameter is critical.
The pitch diameter of a screw shaft is measured from the crest of 1 thread to the corresponding point on the next thread. Measurement is made from 1 thread to another, which is then measured using the pitch. Alternatively, the pitch diameter can be approximated by averaging the major and minor diameters. In most cases, the pitch diameter of a screw shaft is equal to the difference between the two.
The thread depth of a screw shaft
Often referred to as the major diameter, the thread depth is the outermost diameter of the screw. To measure the thread depth of a screw, use a steel rule, micrometer, or caliper. In general, the first number in the thread designation indicates the major diameter of the thread. If a section of the screw is worn, the thread depth will be smaller, and vice versa. Therefore, it is good practice to measure the section of the screw that receives the least amount of use.
In screw manufacturing, the thread depth is measured from the crest of the screw to the root. The pitch diameter is halfway between the major and minor diameters. The lead diameter represents the amount of linear distance traveled in 1 revolution. As the lead increases, the load capacity decreases. This measurement is primarily used in the construction of screws. However, it should not be used for precision machines. The thread depth of a screw shaft is essential for achieving accurate screw installation.
To measure the thread depth of a screw shaft, the manufacturer must first determine how much material the thread is exposed to. If the thread is exposed to side loads, it can cause the nut to wedge. Because the nut will be side loaded, its thread flanks will contact the nut. The less clearance between the nut and the screw, the lower the clearance between the nut and the screw. However, if the thread is centralized, there is no risk of the nut wedgeing.
The lead of a screw shaft
Pitch and lead are 2 measurements of a screw’s linear distance per turn. They’re often used interchangeably, but their definitions are not the same. The difference between them lies in the axial distance between adjacent threads. For single-start screws, the pitch is equal to the lead, while the lead of a multi-start screw is greater than the pitch. This difference is often referred to as backlash.
There are 2 ways to calculate the pitch and lead of a screw. For single-start screws, the lead and pitch are equal. Multiple-start screws, on the other hand, have multiple starts. The pitch of a multiple-start screw is the same as its lead, but with 2 or more threads running the length of the screw shaft. A square-thread screw is a better choice in applications requiring high load-bearing capacity and minimal friction losses.
The PV curve defines the safe operating limits of lead screw assemblies. It describes the inverse relationship between contact surface pressure and sliding velocity. As the load increases, the lead screw assembly must slow down in order to prevent irreversible damage from frictional heat. Furthermore, a lead screw assembly with a polymer nut must reduce rpm as the load increases. The more speed, the lower the load capacity. But, the PV factor must be below the maximum allowed value of the material used to make the screw shaft.
The thread angle of a screw shaft
The angle between the axes of a thread and the helix of a thread is called the thread angle. A unified thread has a 60-degree angle in all directions. Screws can have either a tapped hole or a captive screw. The screw pitch is measured in millimeters (mm) and is usually equal to the screw major diameter. In most cases, the thread angle will be equal to 60-degrees.
Screws with different angles have various degrees of thread. Originally, this was a problem because of the inconsistency in the threading. However, Sellers’s thread was easier to manufacture and was soon adopted as a standard throughout the United States. The United States government began to adopt this thread standard in the mid-1800s, and several influential corporations in the railroad industry endorsed it. The resulting standard is called the United States Standard thread, and it became part of the ASA’s Vol. 1 publication.
There are 2 types of screw threads: coarse and fine. The latter is easier to tighten and achieves tension at lower torques. On the other hand, the coarse thread is deeper than the fine one, making it easier to apply torque to the screw. The thread angle of a screw shaft will vary from bolt to bolt, but they will both fit in the same screw. This makes it easier to select the correct screw.
The tapped hole (or nut) into which the screw fits
A screw can be re-threaded without having to replace it altogether. The process is different than that of a standard bolt, because it requires threading and tapping. The size of a screw is typically specified by its major and minor diameters, which is the inside distance between threads. The thread pitch, which is the distance between each thread, is also specified. Thread pitch is often expressed in threads per inch.
Screws and bolts have different thread pitches. A coarse thread has fewer threads per inch and a longer distance between threads. It is therefore larger in diameter and longer than the material it is screwed into. A coarse thread is often designated with an “A” or “B” letter. The latter is generally used in smaller-scale metalworking applications. The class of threading is called a “threaded hole” and is designated by a letter.
A tapped hole is often a complication. There is a wide range of variations between the sizes of threaded holes and nut threads, so the tapped hole is a critical dimension in many applications. However, even if you choose a threaded screw that meets the requisite tolerance, there may be a mismatch in the thread pitch. This can prevent the screw from freely rotating.